Autumn and a Natureholic

 

img_e9722.jpgJohn Heinz NWR is my most favorite place in Philadelphia area. There are a couple of wooden benches placed along the lake bank, shaded with woods, guarded by catbirds, welcomed by the soldier of wetland Red-winged Blackbird, and sometimes grilled by the untiring cry of cicadas where I could have some secluded moments. There are few unforgettable moments when beautiful creatures unknowingly perched on a close-by tree brunch and gave me an intimate look. Standing in between trees or sitting on the mud floor for hours and keeping the eyes wide open to follow small or medium-sized birds in the bushes are my treasures moment. Those are the moments when no earthy business matters but the bird. I have spent my most rewarding and blissful time in this lovely urban refuge. In last three years, I have admirably seen the changes it embraces over time. Autumn has been an exceptional time of the year, exhibited both – the astounding color of foliage and attuning with greyish looks of the winter. The horizon in the distance won’t be eye-soothing and heartwarming for next few months. Could the human being be a hibernating animal too !!!

Boardwalk over Derby Lake

IMG_E9747IMG_E9718

Advertisements
Categories: Autumn, Natureholic, Wildlife of North America | Leave a comment

Water is a thing to worry about

According to UN Water, by 2025, two-thirds of the world population would be under stressed water conditions. Global human population growth and the rate of natural resource extraction are adversely impacting on the earth system. The rate of resource extraction is not sustainable, and well-documented climate change already exacerbates this problem (Giegengack 2010). Water is an essential resource, which is most of the time undervalued. Most economic models do not value the essential services provided by freshwater ecosystems, often leading to unsustainable use of water resources and ecosystem degradation (WWAP 2015). Water is one of the most valuable natural resources, widely taken as granted, being wasted at an alarming rate. Whereas, nearly one billion (one-seventh of world population) do not have access to it. Besides, around 2.7 billion people in the world find water scarce for at least one month of the year (WWF 2015). Agriculture and economic development largely dependent on the adequate supply of freshwater. Different regions in Africa, Middle East, South Asia, South-east Asia, some states in the US and South American countries are facing noteworthy water-related challenges. Not only human being needs water, but also all other living organisms and non-living things highly depend on water. The growing scarcity of water resources stressing our valuable ecosystems.

Water brings all good things to life. “A shortage of water resources could spell increased conflicts in the future. Population growth will make the problem worse. So will climate change. As the global economy grows, so will its thirst. Many more conflicts lie just over the horizon” – Ban Ki-Moon, Secretary-General of the United Nations. Many believe water crisis is real and becoming as the greatest challenge for the human world. Furthermore, global power might change the water-related politics in the coming years. The world is becoming much thirstier. To meet the needs of a rapidly growing population around the world, higher demand in the market accelerating production, draining water resources more quickly than ever.

According to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report, climate change has negatively affected major crops (wheat, rice, and maize) for many regions and in the global aggregate and without adequate adaptation measures to climate change the negative impact the production.

A large number of water bodies are transboundary – these rivers, lakes or groundwater systems are sometimes shared among multiple countries, and cooperation over this issue to ensure fair share is often troublesome and lengthy. The Ganges delta is one of the concrete examples, which cover a large part of South Asia. Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, and Pakistan share 20 transboundary rivers along the conflicting border areas (World Bank). China, India, and Bangladesh repeatedly failing to reach an agreement. In South Asia, India is the biggest state and having water controversies with all its neighbors.

The global community has the solution. “Ultimately, water will be limiting in all respects unless we learn to do a lot more with a lot less, learn to reuse, and more and more, and to manage our way to a sustainable water future” – Jay Famiglietti. To produce 1 kg of wheat, rice and beef producers need 1000L, 1400L and 13000L of water respectively (D.Zimmer, and D.Renault 2003). Huge saving of water through integrated water management practice is possible. Modern science and technologies are increasing the efficiency of industries including agriculture and homestead use of water. As the most intelligent species on the earth, it is our responsibility to conserve, preserve and protect water resources for future generations and the animal world. The latest Sustainable Development Goals also an emphasis on access to freshwater and its conservation. According to UN Water, 3 out of 4 jobs worldwide are water-dependent. There is a range of controversies involved in the world’s water conflicts. However, there are opportunities to build our earth a better place for the future generation, ensuring adequate access to fresh and safe water. Common global concerns like disputes about the building and operation of large dams, environmental sustainability, climate change adaptation, water markets, water governance, distribution and sharing water resources are bringing different parties on the same platform and creating an opportunity for the future. Public participation, the role of national and international NGOs, a standard approach and changing human mindset can help improve the water management. Human use of water does not only reduce the amount of water available for industrial and agricultural development but has a profound effect on the aquatic ecosystem and its associated living organisms.

The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) is a specialized agency of the United Nations dedicated to eradicating rural poverty and investing in poor rural people, with a particular focus on smallholders in developing countries. Adaptation for Smallholder Agriculture Programme (ASAP) promotes sustainable water use in agriculture and improves access to information for millions of crop growers (Tropical Agriculture Association 2014).

Watershed management and information technology are a critical challenge for water scare regions like Africa and Asia. Experiences show that the successful watershed management requires the adoption of latest technologies according to local needs, advanced information database, and regional cooperation. Accordingly, investments are also necessary to build the capacity of local government and local communities. Improvements in the agriculture system and value addition to the local communities are imperative for greater impact of sustainable water management.

Can you imagine a future without beer? To produce one-liter of beer, 300 liters of water being used. 70% of world’s fresh water is used for agriculture (UN Water). Understanding the value of water in everyday life and being considerate before wasting water at an individual level is important. Public education at all levels can help reduce water waste. At the same time, policy and regulation should be in place to encourage residents about their water consumption. Changes in human behavior are the key towards a more sustainable future.DSC_1343.JPG

Categories: Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Nyctea scandiaca (Snowy Owl) – Le Raysville, Bradford Country, Pennsylvania

DSC_4224.jpgThe beauty of the bird rendered me speechless. I was totally blown away watching my first Snowy Owl sitting about 35 yards away from me. He was like the physical avatar of the real ray of sunshine.  A Snowy Owl was recently spotted by a birdwatcher on a countryside farm. Kevin Raymond, dedicated wildlife watcher, first discovered this diurnal owl while he was driving on a back road and was looking for another owl species. Kevin first brought this owl to a Facebook group name ‘PA Birders,’ which eventually attracted many local bird watchers and banders. According to the expert, who banded Bradford’s Snowy owl, this is a first-year male. A study shows that time required to grow from 10% to 90% of asymptotic weight in males is 36 days. The body weight of a male Snowy can get up to 3 lbs in less than two months. Female Snowy chick grows little slower than male. The owl of Arctic who lives in severe cold climate develops their plumage in such so that they can regulate their body temperature. Their adaptation techniques are fascinating. To control body temperature, a snowy owl can change the thickness of their plumage. The ambient temperature decrease (or Lower Temperature of Survival) and bird’s metabolism are directly correlated.

Snowy OwlDSC_4241 copyDSC_4319DSC_4380DSC_4207DSC_4061DSC_4256IMG_5757IMG_5764IMG_5768

He has carefully selected the location. It is reasonably comprehensible that availability of preying species, the openness of the land, quietness, and temperature are few of the primary criteria for this Snowy to select Le Raysville as a temporary home. Although owl species are naturally nocturnal, Snowy is exceptional. They are seen hunting any time of the day or night. Nomadic Snowy is an infrequent visitor in Bradford County, particularly in a rural landscape. The land he temporarily inhabited also supports healthy lemming population, which was his primary nourishment source. Kevin has spotted him preying on voles. Small wood patches surround this abandoned piece of private land. Fortunately, according to local countryman, no red fox or wolf inhabit near the land. Red-tailed Hawks and Bald Eagles were seen foraging in the sky but weren’t interested in attacking the owl. However, a couple of American Crow did pursuit the owl, perhaps too aware him about their presence. The usual territory of a Snowy Owl in the Arctic would be ten sqm, whereas, Bradford’s owl was observed to be within a couple sqm or less. He refused to take flight as I kept begging for few more shots. Such a nerd, he was sitting right beside the silt bag for four hours with little movement, except rotating his half-opened eyes scanning surroundings area. Adjacent areas are moderately wildlife friendly. A flock of white-tailed deer was browsing within 100 yards from the owl.

DSC_4319

Although Snowy population seems stable, human irrationality towards common but magnificent species is injurious. There is ample evidence that changing the climate and continually increasing temperature affecting snowy and other animals. Snowy owls are exclusively native to the North America and Eurasia (Holarctic Bird).

Categories: Natureholic, North American Bird, Owl, Uncategorized | Tags: , , | Leave a comment

A Glimmering Day at Middle Creek Wildlife Management Area

Snow Geese lit the Middle Creek. The natural connection they developed over time instituted a school of an incredible ecosystem.

The sky of Lancaster and Lebanon counties, Pennsylvania gets covered by Snow Geese every morning and evening since the mid-February 2017 and will continue until the end of March depending on the temperature rise and food availability. This human-made wildlife conservation site supporting diverse species year around, providing critical shelter to migratory birds since 1972. Not only human beings but also birds like shelducks are concerned about their security and future of existence. Middle Creek Wildlife Management Area provides absolute security and adequate ecosystem services for their well-being in general. Surrounding farmlands are a critical source of food besides the lake itself. Some observers might be dismayed observing waterfowl from a decent distance. All through the lake banks, there is fence keeping human away from migratory ducks and swans and other animals, which apparently protecting animal during their stopover at the creek. An onlooker can easily understand that how freely and confidently those birds are moving around. Snow Geese and Tundra Swans are an innately social animal; they love to stay together in a group. Rarely, an isolated swan is found in nature. During a flight, they fly in a ‘V’ formation in a group also called skein. As it was twilight on the horizon, small skeins were returning to the lake from nearby farmlands. Among big birds, Snow Geese and Tundra Swans are perhaps less aggressive than Canada Geese. During my visit, I haven’t seen a single fight among them but did witness two separate territorial battles of Canada Geese. This year is quite extraordinary because of two reasons – early arrival of Snow Geese and their astonishing number. Scattered gaggles of Snow Geese are present all over the lake surface. It is so difficult to photograph them under bright sunlight. Thousands of geese temporarily make middle creek their home to regain energy before heading to the north as temperature start rising in the East Coast of the USA.

Tundra Swan: character-wise they are so gracious than others. Hundreds of them were floating on the lake surface in small and medium gaggles. They do follow order at all doings and certainly enjoy togetherness. Few giggles were even accompanied by American Black Ducks, American Coot, and Great Blue Heron.

Geese Fight: Right before the dusk, witnessing a 15 seconds battle of 2 male geese wing to wing made my day. The male Canada Geese was hanging with a female geese mortified me by losing a duo with an intruder geese. The other geese stopped whatever they were doing to watch and honk. The second one, carnival barker, ultimately won the fight and took the girl away.

Other species I observed includes Common Merganser, Mallard, Belted Kingfisher, Downy Woodpecker, Red-tailed Hawk, Turkey Vulture, Song Sparrow, Sparrow sp, ring-necked ducks, Northern Flicker, chickadees and few others.

Categories: Avifauna, Natureholic, Uncategorized, Wildlife of North America | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

How Governance impacting on natural resource management in Developing Countries!

Developing countries are perhaps facing the biggest challenge to maintain an effective governance mechanism. Unfavorable governance system not only fading out human fundamental rights to survive but also adversely affecting natural resources. There are numerous examples how disproportionately natural resources are being extracted e.g. East Africa and Myanmar. Along with the threat of climate change, these developing countries are socially and politically vulnerable, which pushing them further behind the poverty line. Ecosystem services are frequently devastated by the hostile political conditions. It is commonly practiced that, in the name of rapid development, industrialization (often illegally possessed), militarization (to protect country from unknown/unidentified enemies) and agriculture (also illegally occupied by local dwellers) are causing huge loss of wetland and forest covers and reducing the per-capita resource. Global data shows that the Atlantic coast of Brazil, the Philippine, Sumatra and Madagascar have lost between 85-95% of their woodland because of ruthless industrialization. Conversely, El Salvador and Afghanistan also lost their forest during the civil war and American invasion respectively.

Countries like India and Bangladesh, having democracy within its harsh geo-political borders, dealing with different kinds of challenge to protect natural resource and its equal distribution among citizens. The average annual rate of deforestation in the Bangladesh in 1980 was 8,000 ha or 1 percent, which rose to nearly 5 percent during 1981-90 registering a 400 percent increase (FAO, 1993). The underlying causes of unsustainable resource extraction are poor governance, inadequate policy instruments, lack of enforcement, lack of public awareness and adverse mind-set towards resource conservation.

There are strong interconnection among good governance, human rights and sustainable development, which are directly or indirectly mentioned by the international community in a number of declarations and other global conference documents. God governance of natural resources includes interaction of various institutions and stakeholders and required favorable state of governance at all level, vertically and horizontally.

One undeniable fact is that humanity now consumes more natural resources than the planet can replenish. The current rate of consumption is a threat to the future prosperity of humankind. Today humanity uses 50% of the planet’s fresh water. With the population growth, which expected to reach 9 billion by 2050, we will use 80%. Similarly, the rate of resource consumption will increase proportionately.  Therefore, protecting natural resources would be one of the major challenges for leaders around the world, unless they act dynamically.

Photo: Naimul Islam

Categories: Bangladesh, Governance, Natureholic | Tags: , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Vulture Reintroduction in Europe

Europe has recently seen a rise in  healthy population of different vulture species. Griffon Vulture, one of the old world vultures, has been reintroduced successfully in France. Like all other family members of its kind, Griffon Vultures are  scavengers. During the mid-twentieth century, the vulture population in entire Europe declined drastically and was affecting some of the major ecosystems. Out of four major vultures found in Europe, Eurasian Griffon (Gyps fulvus), Bearded Vulture (Gypaetus barbatus), Black Vulture (Aegypius monachus) and Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus), France, Italy, Bulgaria, Turkey and Former Yugoslavia had lost most of their populations (Schenk 1972). At that time, only Spain had noteworthy vulture population (estimated 2000 pairs of Griffon and 200 pairs of Black vultures) within its territory with insignificant movement in neighboring countries (Bernis 1966, 1974). Besides Griffon, Bearded Vulture was reintroduced in France, Germany, Switzerland and Austria through a 20 year conservation project (1972-1992). There was a critical time in the middle of last century, vulture species (Griffon, Bearded, Turkey, Black and others) were becoming critically endangered all over Europe. Different long-term and short-term initiatives were taken by France, Germany, Switzerland, Bulgaria, Spain and Turkey which helped improve the vulture  population.

In France, Bulgaria and Italy, the vulture populations declined largely due to unprecedented development activities after World War 2. It was widely acknowledged that, poisoning, shooting, starvation, wire collision, electrocution, injury, old age and imprinting are common reasons behind endangering vulture populations, not only in Europe but also in Asia (India, Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh and China). According to SAVE (Saving Asia’s Vulture From Extinction – a consortium of international organizations), 97% of vulture population have declined in Asian Sub-continent, which is quicker than that of any other species. In Europe, other causes of non-predatory death includes malnutrition, disease, and catastrophic events (Whelan 2008). Vultures are exceptionally dependent on carcasses of wild and domestic animals. They are also known as cleaners of nature. Domestic animals are frequently treated with NSAID (Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug), which is one of the major threats for the vulture population. RSC’s (Royal Society of Chemistry) study shows that, Veterinary painkiller like NSAID has caused for 99% of India’s vulture death between 1992 and 2007. This deadly drug is still being widely used in different countries in Europe and threatening the vulture.

The most important task vulture does for the ecosystem is consume carcasses. Dead bodies of wild animals and farm animals are primary food source of these gregarious bird species. All the vulture soars in the sky for whole day surveying the earth’s surface for food. To maintain ecological balance, the vulture plays an important role in environmental health. They are important spiritually, economically and environmentally. As scavenger, vultures are able to consume carcasses more effectively and efficiently than any others (Whelan 2008). Before the disappearance of Griffon Vulture from Massif Central and the Alps in France, (also known as  of ‘raptor war’) most of the carcasses were cleaned through natural process. Water bodies in France and other neighboring countries along the Alps were contaminated with carrion, which was effecting entire ecosystem, starting from human being to small cats and birds. Tons of abandoned wild remains were polluting air, water and soil across Alps. Though there is limited information about adverse consequences before introducing ‘vulture restaurants[1]’ in France, in 1960s, national level conservation activities began. Vulture restaurants were the first such initiative to restore Griffon Vulture population by delivering safe food (Terrasse & Terrasse 1970).

[1] Open place where safe and uncontaminated food is provided for vultures.

Vultures, importantly stop spreading diseases from carrions in wild. Scavengers are capable of digesting almost all harmful pathogens found in carcasses. They break down dead bodies and help decomposers to further break them into chemical elements. Decomposition and the recycling process of dead biomass are heavily depended on vulture species.

To strengthen conservation efforts, some legal actions facilitated restore vulture population in European countries. Since 1970s, bird shooting was legally prohibited in France. Announcing protecting areas across counties (France, Spain, Italy, Turkey and others) to protect natural resources also assisted to grow vulture population. To protect birds, in Europe, Bird Directive was developed in 1979. Spain has banned using NSAID in the beginning of twenty first century. Whereas, other European countries are still in the political process to regulate veterinary medicines.

img_4414

European communities are well-known for their environmental friendliness. Vulture reintroduction projects were widely accepted by the community. Since vultures hardly show up into urban or semi-urban areas or highly populated areas, their wolf-like misconceptions are discounted. A number of Non-government Organizations (e.g. Vulture Conservation Foundation) along with government agencies are working together to resolute unexpected issues. The Alps and the Grands Causses are free zones for vultures. Another inventiveness, ‘Farmer Feeding Places’ within the Griffon Vulture foraging areas (mainly in Grands Causses), involving community into the process made the path easier. Remarkably, reintroduced Black Vultures followed Griffon’s feeding zones and were able to uphold their distinctive characteristics.

Photo: (@ Naimul Islam_2012) Bearded Vulture soaring over the Alps (Valais, Switzerland)

Categories: Avifauna, Natureholic | Tags: , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Puerto Rican Avifauna

Puerto_Rican_Avifauna

Categories: Uncategorized | Tags: , | Leave a comment

Offshore Drilling

For the sake of existence, we constantly make decisions that sacrifice environmental values. The U.S. oil supply-demand balance is insurmountable. Risky offshore drilling for oil and gas would take us down to an indecent state. Economic and technological development is the key to swift advancement in the oil and gas industry.

According to EIA (US Energy Information Administration), the United States consumed a total of 6.95 billion barrels of petroleum products (19.05 million barrels per day) in the year 2014. The petroleum market is entirely depended on the supply and demand. When there is more oil extracted then the prices are lower and consequently crates lower prices for other important commodities like plastic and fuel. By 2040, oil consumption in US will reach to around 119 MMbbl/d* from 87 MMbbl/d in 2010 (EIA-IEO2014).

In the recent time, US oil production is on the rise and creating tens of thousands of job. The bonafide oil boom to meet the need of human inconveniency is unavoidable. However, there are risks. No one denies the environmental risks of drilling for oil in ocean. No matter how careful the oil companies are, accidents that damage the environment and human well-being at least temporarily might happen. Deepwater Horizon, Exxon Valdez, Santa Barbara, Piper Alpha and Texas City Accident are examples of piercingly pronounced incidents around the world. In every cases, human errors are attributed for those accidents.National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling have concluded that the worst ever BP accident in Gulf could have been prevented.

BN-HW116_DRILLR_M_20150413162717

Photo: Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico (Copyright: Wall Street Journal)

Photo: A symbol of industrial catastrophe (Deepwater Horizon)

Photo: A symbol of industrial catastrophe (Deepwater Horizon) (Copyright : http://knowledge.allianz.com)

There are many reasons that it makes sense to drill offshore. We certainly should continue to allow and promote offshore drilling, despite of experiencing numerous challenges. There are unquestionable high demands for fossil fuel. As availability declines, prices increase and decisions must be made on where drilling is acceptable. When countries like the United States are able to drill their own oil, they can be independent from countries like those belonging to OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries).

But, the central thought is how we administer this critical means of human civilization. Accountability in the corporate petroleum industry, policy measures, information disclosure policy, technological improvement, social justice, community participation, constant monitoring, increasing fuel efficiency and advanced research on offshore drilling can prevent another mega accident. Instead of profit maximizing, companies should focus on safety measures effectively.

color-offshore-drilling-webOffshore drilling is extremely complex structures and the slightest mistake can be devastating to the environment and economy. Federal Government, State Government, community and companies needs to capitalize from the past experience, so that we can enhance our control of drilling risks and costs. Government and companies are often disregard socio-economic effects (e.g. Fisheries and aquaculture, tourism and recreation) and effects on human health. Only truthful commitment and enhanced reliability towards a safer petroleum industry can reduce these risks.

* MMbbl/d – Million Barrel per Day

Categories: Offshore Drilling | Tags: , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The Clean Power Plan

If we do not act now, the expense will be manifolds for our future generation. The effects are nowadays clearly noticeable – weather condition is shifting faster than any time in the human history. To administer the current scenario, having extensive evidence in hand, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considering regulate GHG (CO2) emission from the energy sector. In line with international communities, e.g. IPCC and EU, to meet the standard of air quality EPA has been developing the Clean Power Plan (CPP) aimed on 30% CO2 reduction by 2030. And, more than three and a half million Americans sent comments in support of the Clean Power Plan to the EPA.

“Continued emission of greenhouse gases will cause further warming and long-lasting changes in all components of the climate system, increasing the likelihood of severe, pervasive and irreversible impacts for people and ecosystems. Limiting climate change would require substantial and sustained reductions in greenhouse gas emissions which, together with adaptation, can limit climate change risks.” – IPCC on November 2, 2014.

“While this progress is encouraging, climate change is no longer a distant threat – we are already feeling its impacts across the country and the world. Last year was the warmest year ever in the contiguous United States and about one-third of all Americans experienced 10 days or more of 100-degree heat.” – The Presidents Climate Action Plan (2013)

“We see the Clean Power Plan as dramatic overstepping of EPA’s legal authority under the Clean Air Act,” John Pippy, CEO of the Pennsylvania Coal Alliance.

cartoon

Source: Google

Carbon Dioxide

Source: LinkedIn

There are apparent disagreements from state and energy industries. And, there are supporters too. “CPP will lead to climate and health benefits worth an estimated $55 billion to $93 billion in 2030, including avoiding 2700 to 6600 premature deaths and 140,000 to 150,000 asthma attacks in Children” – American Lung Association.

Periodical assessment and progress monitoring of the state implementation plan (SIP), in line with the CPP and Clean Air Act (CWA), will further broaden the scopes for energy sector across the country. In the process of CPP finalization, implementation and follow-up, local stakeholders need to be engaged through Public Hearing, Group Discussion and survey. Continuous monitoring-evaluation-modification of CPP and SIP will reduce uncertainty regarding electricity pricing, heat rate improvement, reliability and other relevant concerns. There are obvious challenges to achieve some of the targets e.g. heat rate improvement. With reasonable flexibility for the industry, CPP will create opportunity to shift to more efficient and cleaner technology using as much as renewable energy sources as possible. Simultaneously, there would be greater opportunities for scientist and/or experts to innovate technologies which may improve the heat rate and diminish dependency on fossil fuel-run industries.

There certainly would be difficulties to achieve articulated targets, nonetheless, the initiative has to be taken. Our actions taking place here within the US territory not only adversely impacting on Population within US territory but also doing the same for rest of the world. An accountable and successful implementation of CPP can be exemplary for international communities and useful to reduce climate related vulnerabilities.

References

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Climate Change 2014 Synthesis Report. November 1, 2014. Accessed at     http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/syr/SYR_AR5_SPM.pdf.

Melillo JM, Richmond TC, and Yohe GW, Eds. 2014. Climate Change Impacts in the United States. The Third National Climate Assessment. U.S. Global Change Research Program. Available at http://www.nca2014.globalchange.gov

Executive Office of the President The president’s climate action plan June 2013. Washington DC, USA: The White House. Accessed at http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/image/president27sclimateactionplan.pdf

Categories: Clean Air Act, Clean Power Plan | Tags: , , , | Leave a comment

WordPress.com.